2018/12/04

Random beneficial DNA mutations? Forget them.

This article debunks the false claims about random beneficial mutations and evolution

Evolution believers claim that random mutations and selection lead to slow evolution. Random mutations are assumed to happen in DNA. Evolution believers often address us 5-10 examples of random beneficial mutations. Let's investigate those claims.

1. Lactose tolerance

This is the most popular argument used by evolution believers. They claim that a single SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism), a point mutation results in lactose persistence. This is a pseudoscientific claim. Modern science has discovered that lactose tolerance is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, such as methylation levels of MCM6 and LCT genes. You can read more about this fascinating mechanism from here:

https://sciencerefutesevolution.blogspot.com/2018/09/lactose-tolerance-is-regulated-by.html

Excerpt: "Most importantly, however, cross-validation analysis revealed that methylation at the LCT promoter and enhancer was highly predictive of lactase enzymatic activity, and the persistence/non-persistence phenotype. The predictive power outperformed the hitherto existing genotype at rs4988235, which fails prediction for the C/T genotype."

2. High altitude adaptation of Tibetans

This is a common claim that one point mutation leads to a better adaptation to high altitudes within Tibetan people. But again modern science has revealed that epigenetic mechanisms are also behind this clever adaptation:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320378665_Epigenetic_signatures_of_high_altitude_adaptation_in_Tibetan_population

Excerpt: "Analysis of WGBS data was performed using various statistical/bioinformatics tools such as bedtools, Bioconductor and R package to find out methylation sites that are significantly different. We observed 6 differentially methylated regions in Tibetans, highland population, of which, 5 were hypo methylated and one was hypermethylated. The present study reveals differential hypo methylation of CYP2E1 and CRELD1 genes, previously reported to be involved in high altitude adaptation (Simonson et al., 2010; Dong et al., 2014), which would of greater interest. Besides this, we observed novel epigenetic differences in chromosome 7, 11 and 15."
 

3. Adaptations to diving in the Bajau

One of the newest claims about random beneficial mutations is the adaptation to diving in the Bajau people. Evolution believers again claim that one point mutation (PDE10A) causes a larger spleen which results in more efficient production of red blood cells. There is at least one pseudoscientific research made over this:

https://pag.confex.com/pag/xxvi/recordingredirect.cgi/oid/Recording3080/paper27788_1.pdf


That study didn't take into account epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation profiles, histone epigenetic markers or non coding RNA molecules. That study has found only one point mutation and based on that, it claims that adaptation to diving is caused by a genetic mutation. But as that synopsis summarizes, it's PROBABLY a genetic effect. Serious scientists already know that exercise will not change the sequence of the DNA. Methylation levels can be altered and this can result in DNA errors or markers. But the DNA sequence error is not the reason for a larger spleen or increased levels of T4 hormone.
https://www.researchgate.net/post/does_genetic_change_with_the_exercise

Excerpt: "No doubt that the genecis code (A,G,C,T) will not change in response to any intra- or extracellular stimuli (e.g., exercise). However, exercise might trigger epigenetic changes (DNA methylation, histone modifications, ncRNAs), which will modulate the accessibility to the genetic code. If such epigenetics changes are inheritable, then there is a possibility of ecxercise-mediated epigenetic changes that might result in the selection of fitter individuals. In the literatüre, there are examples of permanent changes in the epigenetic code that can be inherited."

Another possibility to consider is a potential for epitranscriptomics changes in the germ cells. If excersice might induce such inheritable changes, I can forsee a possibility for exercise-mediated epitranscriptomics changes in the germ cells that might change the fate of the fertilezed egg :)"



4. Apolipoprotein AI-Milano


Apo-AI is one of the High Density Lipoproteins, already known to be beneficial because they remove cholesterol from artery walls.


The variation of this gene is based on alternative splicing. It means the gene itself doesn't get changed but the transcript may be altered due to nutrient adaptive reasons by a very clever RNA-mediated mechanism.

5. Increased bone density

“Current research data suggest epigenetic modifications (DNA methylation and histone acetylation) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are responsive to acute aerobic and resistance exercise in brain, blood, skeletal and cardiac muscle.”


6. CCR5Δ32, the HIV-1 immunity protein

This is also based on alternative splicing. Most of the human protein production is based on the alternative splicing so the variation of this receptor is not a mutant, although many scientific articles say so.
http://www.jmolecularsignaling.com/articles/10.1186/1750-2187-7-13/

7. Sickle cell anemia

Scientists try to repair the broken gene causing this severe disease. 

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-12-sickle-cell-anemia-treatment-safely.html

Excerpt: "Because of the lack of detailed medical records, the best available estimates are that 50 to 90 percent of infants with SCA born in sub-Saharan Africa die before the age of 5, according to a 2017 paper published by Cincinnati Children's researchers that included Ware."


My comment: Epigenetic adaptation will not result in any kind of evolution because epigenetic mechanisms only regulate pre-existing biological information. Epigenetic modifications typically cause subtle DNA errors. That's why there are 561,119 harmful genetic defects in human genome at population level. The number of disease-causing germline mutations is also over 300,000. One in five 'healthy' adults may carry disease-related genetic mutations. Genetic entropy is a biological fact. The number of random beneficial mutations seems to be a ZERO. The theory of evolution is the most serious heresy of our time. Don't be deceived.