Nuclear genome has lost its function as the unique and exclusive determinant of inherited characteristics

Fresh Study minimizes the role of DNA in inheritance


Excerpt: "The development of epigenetic studies in recent years has profoundly enriched our view of genetic inheritance. Most significantly, the nuclear genome has gradually lost its function as the unique and exclusive determinant of inherited characteristics due to mounting waves of data revealing the complex epigenetic networks that heritably control genome expression. A comprehensive picture of epigenetic patterns is now emerging where DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin patterning and RNA-mediated functions play key regulatory roles on a variety of cellular processes and on the programming of early embryonic development.

Growing evidence indicates that epigenetic states can be transmitted to the germline—most significantly via spermatozoa—and then delivered to the offspring at fertilization and inherited by the progeny (extensively reviewed by Lane et al.  and Rando). A fundamental role in this process is played by extracellular vesicles, heterogeneous membrane-coated particles that can transfer RNA, DNA, proteins and lipids between a broad range of cell types and across species. The cargo of extracellular vesicles is predominantly constituted by a wide range of RNAs including regulatory miRNA, tRNA, lncRNA, piRNA and snRNA, which collectively can modulate the expression of an ample spectrum of genes. In the past decade, extracellular vesicles, particularly exosomes, have emerged as crucial vehicles mediating intercellular communication in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular vesicle-mediated intercellular trafficking is not restricted to somatic cells, but is also a phenomenon involving germline cells—most significantly, mature spermatozoa. During sperm maturation, the regulatory RNA content is selectively modified by the interaction with epididymosomes, a class of extracellular vesicles released from somatic epididymis that deliver their cargoes to epididymal spermatozoa. Some of these epididymal RNAs are essential for proper embryonic development.
In summary, a growing body of published data now supports the idea that spermatozoa provide an active system of soma-to-germline communication that crosses the Weismann barrier and contributes to epigenetic formatting of progeny development .

Extracellular vesicles are recognized as effective mediators of intercellular communication. They are released from diverse cellular sources and can pass many different RNA molecules, which may vary in response to stressing stimuli and with the health of the donors."

My comment: DNA is just a passive data base and it has no control over cellular processes. Organismal traits and characteristics are inherited mostly by non coding RNA molecules transferred by extracellular vesicles. These discoveries should help researchers solve the problems in missing heritability, for instance. There is no mechanism for evolution because epigenetic modifications never result in any kind of evolution. Don't get lost, my friends.


Nuclear Pore Complex points out the absurdity of the theory of evolution

Nuclear pore complex recognizes faulty DNA sequences

The nuclear pore complex is a highly complex protein machine that serves as a kind of gateway between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The nuclear pore complex is composed of 500-1000 proteins, making it one of the most complex cellular protein machines.

The Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) has several important roles in the molecular transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It checks that the cargo of mRNA transiting from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is in good order and that its grammar is correct. This process is a very important step in protein production. NPC is a cargo monitoring port that does not allow mRNA to leave the nucleus in case of cargo uncertainties.

Another interesting task of the NPC is to assist in repairing faulty DNA sequences. The cell has mechanisms by which it recognizes faulty DNA sequences. When it detects defective DNA, the cell most often hides the defective sections by methylating them and transferring them to regions called telomeres at the ends of the chromosomes. The tightly packaged, silenced DNA is called heterochromatin. The cell uses myosins, so-called motor proteins, two-legged transporter proteins, to move defective DNA sequences in the vicinity of nuclear pore complexes, where the DNA repair mechanisms modify the defective DNA sequences so that they can be reused by the cell.

“Myosins are conveyed as a walking molecule because they have two legs,” Chiolo said. “One [leg] is attached and the other moves. It’s like a molecular machine that walks along the filaments.” 
The myosins pick up the injured DNA, walk along the filament road and then reach the emergency room, a pore at the boundary of the nucleus. 
“We knew, based on our prior study, that there was an emergency room — the nuclear pore where the cell fixes its broken DNA strands. Now, we have discovered how the damaged DNA travels there,” Chiolo said. “What we think is happening here is that the damage triggers a defense mechanism that quickly builds the road, the actin filament, while also turning on an ambulance, the myosin.”

These findings on the complexity and function of NPCs are extremely embarrassing for the evolutionary theory. At the same time, they help to understand the passive nature of DNA as a digital information library that the cell must read in order to produce active and functional RNA molecules. If the theory of evolution were true, it would mean that evolution would have developed a protein machine that is able to recognize what would be a valid DNA or RNA sequence in the cell. In other words, this machine recognizes and helps to correct mutations, i.e. genetic defects. If the hypothesized evolution were based on mutations and natural selection, it would also mean that the nuclear pore complex would have evolved to find and repair the mutations. Absurd!

A good question is how is it possible for NPCs to recognize faulty DNA sequences and also to detect whether a DNA or RNA sequence is a grammatically valid material. Such a machine of up to a thousand complex proteins could not have evolved by chance. The blind, uncontrolled process is unable to construct even one simple protein. The probability is nonexistent, 1: 10 ^ 202. Without functioning nucleus pore complexes, life would end after a few generations because defective proteins would lead to reproductive failures.

The nuclear pore complex points to Intelligent Design and Creation. NPC is designed to be a complete, functional entity. How could random mutations be able to create a machine that is able to recognize and repair random mutations?! Defects in the nuclear pore complex lead to many diseases because it is integral to cellular structure. Its ability to detect and recognize both valid and inaccurate information shows how incredibly complex structures are found in the cell. However, not all errors are repaired by the cell. Gradually everything decays. God has ordained the beginning, the life cycle, and the end of life. There are already hundreds of thousands of genetic defects in the human genome worldwide. Evolution never happened.