2017/12/04

Mechanisms behind the cell differentiation

The sophisticated mechanisms behind the cell differentiation reveal the fallacies of the evolutionary theory

There are at least 37 trillion cells in a human body. They can roughly be classified into two hundred cell types that our body needs for different tissue types to produce the necessary proteins and to handle several, e.g. metabolism related tasks. All of our cells have exactly the same DNA sequences (only brain neurons and T cells controlled by the immune defense system make an exception). How does the cell differentiation occur? Why does the skin cell have a completely different identity than a bone cell? Both have exactly the same DNA, so it is clear that the DNA sequences do not determine the task or function of the cell.

Differentiation of the cells begins already during embryonic development. The process is called epigenetic reprogramming. If all of the epigenetic markers on the DNA are wiped out of the cell, it becomes a pluripotent stem cell capable of differentiating into any task. During the embryonic development, cells may have to be re-programmed up to two or three times. Only cells programmed by the immune system will not be reprogrammed, which is, of course, a brilliant solution. The most important epigenetic markers affecting cell differentiation are DNA methylation and epigenetic markings of histone, i.e. DNA packaging proteins (including methylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, phosphorylation etc.).

These epigenetic information layers determining cell differentiation are set in epigenetic reprogramming by non-coding RNA molecules. The information transmitted by the MicroRNAs and lncRNAs will be stored in histone epigenetic markers that act as a biological database and an address system. Thus, all information related to the cell function is stored outside of the DNA sequences. In practice, this means activating or suppressing genes and transcriptional regions and bending chromatin to contact certain regions of DNA. As the organism adapts, it experiences the changes in epigenetic information structures. This often results in deleterious DNA sequence changes because methylation acts as a DNA stabilizer. When the methylation profiles change, the cell is exposed to oxidative stress that causes deamination of DNA bases, whereby the base may change. This is where a genetic mutation occurs. This is the most significant mechanism of DNA degradation.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2468054017300021

When the organism adapts to, for example, a new nutritional type or a cooler climate, it is primarily necessary to investigate the changes in epigenetic profiles. DNA sequence changes may also occur, but they are also results of changed epigenetic profiles. Random mutations and natural selection have no role in the ecological adaptation of organisms. If we want to compare the genomic similarity between the two organisms, it should be done between the mechanisms affecting the cell differentiation. Thus, if we compare the human and chimpanzee lncRNA molecules, which set up the biological address database in the embryonic development, are the fallacies of the evolutionary theory revealed: The similarity of human and chimpanzee lncRNA molecules is only 29.8% !! So we're not related to apes. The evolutionary theory is the most serious heresy of our time. Don't get lost, good people.