Cells are guiding each other

Why cloning using a DNA sample will not be successful? Why genetically identical twins might have different colors of eys, hair and skin?


Excerpt: "Stem cells from an adult mouse have been used to grow a structure resembling a mouse embryo in vitro for the first time.

The ability to study the early stages of embryo development outside the womb may one day help explain why a significant number of human pregnancies fail. This breakthrough in developmental research originated from the same team at University of Cambridge which recently developed a technique that allows human embryos to develop in the lab up to the legal limit of 14 days in the UK.

'We are very optimistic that this will allow us to study key events of this critical stage of human development without actually having to work on (IVF) embryos,' said lead researcher Professor Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz of the University of Cambridge.

The development of a fertilised egg into a fetus is a complex and poorly understood process of self-assembly and intricate cell-to-cell interaction. In a few days a small ball of undifferentiated cells develops into a blastocyst consisting of three different types of embryonic stem cell. Previous attempts to grow embryos using only one kind of stem cell proved unsuccessful because the cells would not assemble into their correct positions.

The researchers placed both placental and embryonic stem cells into a three-dimensional scaffold and discovered that within 96 hours the cells had begun to communicate, forming two distinct clusters of cells at each end and a cavity in the middle.

'We knew that interactions between the different types of stem cell are important for development, but the striking thing that our new work illustrates is that this is a real partnership – these cells truly guide each other,' said Professor Zernicka-Goetz."

My comment: Gene sequences in the embryo's DNA are not sufficient for guiding cellular differentiation. Information for embryonic development is given by exosomes shared from neighbouring cells. Exosomes are carriers for short non-coding RNA molecules which are responsible for epigenetic reprogramming, the procedure when epigenetic markers are established on the genome.

There are thousands of different types of microRNAs and other short RNA molecules in human sperm, for example. They are used for epigenetic reprogramming. Complex traits of an vertebrate organism are based on this mechanism which reprograms the epitranscriptome.

So, having a DNA sample of a Mammoth will not make it possible to clone a Mammoth. We'd need living cells from a Mammoth. The evolutionary story lacks a mechanism for assumed evolution of multicellularity. Information for cellular differentiation is shared from top to down, not from down to top, as evolutionists claim. The whole theory of evolution is upside down when reflected to observations of real life.

Everything points to Intelligent Design and Creation. Don't get lost.