2019/08/30

Passive DNA helps us understand why evolution never happened

Passive DNA helps us understand why evolution never happened

The following facts should help us realize that the DNA is just a passive data base. I wrote about passive DNA for the first time in 2017 and slowly this understanding is taking place in modern science. 

1. There are ~250 different cell types in a human body. Every cell (except neurons and T-cells) is maintaining the exactly same DNA. A question arises: Why is your skin cell different to your liver cell? They both have the same DNA sections so how is the identity of the cell determined? Obviously not by the DNA 'genes'.

The answer: The identity of the cell is determined by epigenetic mechanisms and factors. This is called epigenetic programming of the cell. Epigenetic mechanisms control transcription (reading) of the DNA; Where the reading starts and where it ends, how actively the reading is processed and when and how often the reading is done.

Keywords: cellular differentiation epigenetic programming

2. There are only ~19,000 DNA sections used for protein production in human genome but the number of different proteins in a human body is up to several millions. By reading (transcribing) just one section of the DNA, then generating a temporary pre-mRNA molecule and modifying it, the cell is able to produce thousands of different proteins. This complex mechanism is called Alternative splicing and it's regulated by epigenetic mechanisms and factors.

Keywords: alternative splicing DNA methylation, alternative splicing histone epigenetic, alternative splicing microRNAs


3. A Stem cell has no identity, no task, no differentiation. It has no job because it lacks epigenetic programs. It has an entire DNA but without epigenetic information it doesn't know what to do.

Keywords: stem cell epigenetic programming

4. There are no single 'genes' in the genome. Sections of the DNA can be read (transcribed) from different locations of the genome, sections may overlap, be embedded and locate even in different chromosomes. Epigenetic factors and mechanisms guide the cell to find appropriate DNA sections for further processing.

Keywords: gene concepts

5. The cell is able to modify its DNA. The most significant modification occurs in DNA repair at several levels but there are other DNA modifying mechanisms such as AID mediated deamination.

Summary: Because the DNA is just passive data base and it has to be activated by epigenetic mechanisms in order to have a purpose, it's obvious that all adaptation within organisms occurs through epigenetic mechanisms and factors = epigenome. Changing epigenetic profiles never result in any kind of evolution, vice versa. Changing methylation patterns often result in subtle genetic errors. That's why genetic degradation is a biological fact. This can be observed: There are 628,685 gene-disease-associations in human genome worldwide but the number of beneficial mutations is close to zero.

Evolution never happened. Don't get lost my friends.

2019/08/29

Ancient coins and Noah's ark

Several ancient coins tell us about Noah's ark

1. https://www.baslibrary.org/biblical-archaeology-review/7/5/2

"New evidence for the antiquity of the tradition associating Mt. Ararat in Turkey with the landing place of Noah’s Ark comes to us in the form of a unique coin on display at the Israel Museum. This large bronze medallion was struck 1700 years ago at Apameia Kibotos in Asia Minor (modern Turkey) near the mountains of Ararat where, it is said, Noah’s Ark came to rest after the flood.

This coin, depicting the events of the story of Noah’s Ark related in Genesis 6–8, is the only coin-type known to bear a Biblical scene.

Apameia Kibotos was a Phrygian city established by Antiochus I (280–261 B.C.) who named it after his mother, Apameia. At that time, there were at least two other cities in the region named Apameia, one in Bithynia (northern Turkey) and the other in Syria. The addition of the word kibotos, which means “ark” in Greek, differentiates this particular Apameia from the others."

2. https://blogs.warwick.ac.uk/numismatics/entry/noahs_ark_in/

 
"The above coin is one of a series of exceptional coins from ancient Apamea, Phrygia. On the obverse we have a Greek inscription naming the emperor as Philip I (AD 244-249), and a bust of the emperor looking to the right wearing a laurel crown, cloak and cuirass. Philip, commonly known as Philip the Arab, was an emperor of Syrian origin,and he is best remembered to history for his sympathetic view of Christianity, and potential conversion, as discussed by Christian writers such as Eusebius, Jerome and Orosius."


3. https://www.mintageworld.com/media/detail/74-Noah%E2%80%99s-Ark-Depicted-On-Ancient-Coin/
 
"Bronze coins of Apameia in Phrygia depict Noah’s Ark. This was probably due to a large, prosperous Jewish population that resided in the town. A mountain nearby had been identified as the one where the ark is supposed to have rested; hence, it is obvious that the story would be commemorated on local coins.
    The coin depicts the ark, which is prominently labelled ‘NOE’ (Noah in Greek), which is in the form of a box barely big enough to hold Noah and his wife, who are depicted on the coin. The couple is seen observing a dove to the left, returning with a green olive branch as a sign that the flood has abated. 

    Coins of this type were issued under Septimus Severus, Macrinus, Gordian III, Philip, and Trabonianus Gallus."





    4. https://creation.com/roman-coin-ark

     
    "As the coins weren’t minted until AD 192, some have considered that the primary influence responsible for their minting may have been a Christian one. One reason is that for Jews, “A strict interpretation of the numerous prohibitions against idolatry in Scripture precluded the depiction of ‘graven images’ and thus any human or animal form on coins.”
    Adding to this possibility of a Christian influence is the fact that the only other similar image known from antiquity, i.e. depicting only Noah and his wife in the Ark, was produced by Christians in Roman catacombs.

    The obverse of the coin (see images right) carries the image and name of the Emperor, which obviously changes depending on the time of minting, but the core features remain essentially the same. On the reverse side it depicts Noah and his wife inside the box-shaped Ark with waves lapping at the bottom of it. Noah’s name in Greek, ΝΩΕ(Nōe), can be clearly read in the middle of the Ark. On top of the Ark on the right is the raven, and on the top left is the dove with an olive branch in its mouth. On the left side of the coin Noah and his wife are again shown, standing outside the Ark on solid ground with their hands raised upwards to God in praise. This important feature shows that they recognized that God remembered them (Genesis 8:1), bringing them safely through the global Flood.

    Of particular interest is the shape used for Noah’s Ark on the coin, which is clearly that of a chest—exactly what the Greek word kibōtos (κιβωτός) means. There is no element of the typical hydrodynamic boat shape or any tailfin added to the design that is so often seen now. The box/chest shape is very distinct in all the earliest representations of Noah’s Ark.


    5. Noah's ark labelled on French Royal Jeton 1742.
     














    6. 
    GERMANY 1649 GOLD DUCAT “NOAH’S ARK” GERMANY, REGENSBURG “FREE CITY” DISPLAYING NOAH’S ARK sailing upon the Stormy Waters with a Dove Flying left below the Rainbow with a branch in its mouth and the Coat of Arms below. Certainly one of “THE” most beautiful Gold Coins in the World!!! This reverse of this Lustrous Golden Ducat is inscribed in eight lines within the wreath “Commemorating the PEACE of WESTPHALIA” and the end of the 30 YEARS’ WAR. The ARK is symbolic of Europe amid the tempestuous currents of the War. Under the Peace and Serenity of GOD (represented by the dove and rainbow), Europe is delivered unto safety, the terribly destructive conflict of the Thirty Years’ War finally being ended.

    2019/08/27

    Confirmed Creationist Predictions

    Confirmed Creationist Predictions

    Creationists have predicted that evolution is not happening, never was and that there's no need for millions of years for current biodiversity to have arisen.

    1. The blind cavefish

      Creationists have claimed that random mutations and selection have nothing to do with loss of eyes within the cavefish. We were right. The eyes loss and recovery are due to epigenetic regulation, which occurs rapidly. Stories of millions of years are ridiculous pseudosciences.

    2. Fisher's theorem.

      Evolution believers have claimed that random mutations and selection result in evolution. Creationists, particularly those mentored by Dr John Sanford, have argued that genetic mutations typically cause rapid genetic degeneration, disease and extinction. Today every biologist knows the fact about heavy mutational load; Every newborn brings 100-200 genetic errors in the germline.

    3. The Junk-DNA theory.

      Evolutionists have argued for decades that about 98% of human DNA is evolutionary junk. Creationists have always believed that the vast majority of DNA is meaningful and important. Newest research has revealed that >90% of the human genome is transcribed to functional RNA molecules.

      "In addition, there has been an explosion of research addressing possible functional roles for the other 98% of the human genome that does not encode proteins. In fact, >90% of the human genome is likely to be transcribed yielding a complex network of overlapping transcripts that include tens of thousands of long RNAs with little or no protein forming capacity; they are collectively called non-coding RNA."

    4. Lenski's experiment. The bacterial experiment started by Richard Lenski in 1988 was intended to prove evolution. Today, after over 65,000 generations of bacteria, we know that no evolution has occurred. Indeed, much has happened in terms of genetic degradation and loss of function. Evolutionists' best bet was that E. Coli was able to utilize citrate under acidic conditions. Later, it has become clear that this adaptive change was also based on a reorganization of existing biological information.
       
      Here we show why it probably was not a speciation event… We conclude that the rarity of the LTEE mutant was an artifact of the experimental conditions and not a unique evolutionary event. No new genetic information (novel gene function) evolved.” (Journal of Bacteriology)
       
    5. Human Eye

      According to evolution believers, the human eye is poorly 'designed'. Evolutionary biologists thought that photons should pass through several layers before they reach the light-sensitive cells, called rods and cones. Nowadays, it is known that this is not the case; The so called Müller cells collect photons and direct the activity of rods and cones. Later, research has confirmed the optimal structure of the retina of the eye. Here too creationists were right.

    6. Vestigial organs

      After Darwin developed his theory, evolution believers have claimed that there are so called vestigial organs, some kind of evolutionary remnants in a human body. The list of vestigial organs in humans has shrunk from 180 in 1890 to 0 in 1999. Creationists were right. Again.

    Position of evolution believers has become very desperate. The total lack of scientific evidence for evolution points out that the theory of evolution is nothing more but a belief system, a religion. Observed change in organisms is due to epigenetic regulation of pre-existing (built-in) biological information OR corruption of information. Don't get lost, my friends.

    2019/08/09

    Overwhelming scientific evidence against the theory of evolution

    Overwhelming scientific evidence against the theory of evolution

    The leading Evolutionary biologists:

    "If much more than 3% of genome is functional, evolution becomes primarily a destructive process." (PZ Myers, 2015)

    "If any more than a small percentage of DNA has a meaningful sequence, such a mutation rate causes more than 1-2 harmful mutations per generation, and evolution becomes primarily a destructive process." (Larry Moran, 2014)

    "Mutational load considerations lead to the conclusion that the functional fraction within the human genome cannot exceed 25%, and is probably considerably lower." (Dan Graur, 2017)
     
    Modern science has revealed that there's no junk-DNA in the genome:

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269187480_Non-coding_RNAs_Biological_functions_and_applications?fbclid=IwAR2RYi1Zw99F_-87r8sj0Q3z1FqHJQ19dCBHZUwDbSx2jaV4GPsBLO4ThRY

    "In addition, there has been an explosion of research addressing possible functional roles for the other 98% of the human genome that does not encode proteins. In fact, >90% of the human genome is likely to be transcribed yielding a complex network of overlapping transcripts that include tens of thousands of long RNAs with little or no protein forming capacity; they are collectively called non-coding RNA."

    These facts are in concordance with OBSERVED evidence:

    • There are 628,685 gene-disease associations in human genome worldwide but the number of beneficial mutations is close to zero.
    • In the wild, a strong deletional bias shapes organisms' genomes. This can be observed as growing amounts of heterochromatin, chromosome fusions and decreasing numbers of chromosomes.
    • There are two main reasons for speciation:
      • Epigenetic modifications. 
      • Corruption of genetic information that results re-organization of information. 

    So, as Dan Graur has said: "If ENCODE is right, evolution is wrong."

    ENCODE is more than right, there's no junk-DNA. Evolution is wrong.

    2019/08/01

    A Striking similarity between the Chicxulub (Yukatan) crater and the Santorini volcano crater

    Dinosaurs were not killed by an asteroid

    http://www.b14643.de/Chicxulub_event/

    Excerpt: "The whole debate about the genesis of drilled melt and breccias in the Chicxulub crater is conducted with wrong assumptions. The Chicxulub "impact" crater is in fact the caldera of a supervolcano that is created by a huge gas explosion. The volcanic origin is by drilled pure andesite in the center of the structure no doubt proved. The bedrock was blasted in a great extent and widely distributed.

    Gravimetric investigations on Yucatan, suggest that the former magma chamber is not limited under the center of the Chicxulub crater. Possibly the dioritic magma chamber reach far to south. It is possible that the crater to south is open (no boreholes). That would be one explanation for the thick breccia units in Guatemala and South-Mexico.

    The ascending andesitic melt in the center of the explosion had only a low eruptive potential. There is no evidence of eruptive melt in the breccias outside the crater on the Yucatan peninsula (questionable Y-5A). The caldera after the gas explosion was immediately covered with falling-back debris. The detection of dykes or veins in the bedrock (Ya-1) indicates lateral intrusions from the yet not cooled andesitic melt body (mixed with breccia). In two wells (C-1, Y-1) were found "ash with glass" in depths between 1300 and 1400 m. This is mysterious and would be worth a new analysis.


    There are two different types of breccias from the ruined bedrock. There are breccias above the intact bedrock and breccia above the igneous andesite. The breccias above the bedrock has no contact with the melt and are unchanged. The breccias above the andesite (S-1, C-1, Y-1 wells) are melted or are in contact with melt, in decreasing intensity upwards. Possibly the lowest parts of falling-back debris are already fallen in the andesitic melt. A sorting the breccias (called units) make not sense because convective movements in the melt are expected. In the upper part of the breccia-package are smaller components of falling-back debris concentrated and have already stratification. Glass fragments in the melted breccias-package are geochemically different. These fragments belong as the breccia to the falling-back debris after the explosion. Presumably, these glasses come from a mixed melt of igneous andesite and bedrock on top of the eruptive vent. All the others in Central America found glassy spherules and glass fragments have probably not a connection with the Chicxulub event.


    The occurrence of shock-generated features is not only an indicator for an impact event, because this is also proved by finds in volcanic structures."



    Picture 1. Horseshoe Basin in the western Gulf of Mexico, as compared using (left) the historic NOAA bathymetry map and (right) BOEM’s new map. The basin contains a salt dome at its center and is flanked by salt sheets. Movement of the salt is evident from the network of faults and rifts expressed on the seafloor around the basin, as well as from the sediment debris flows seen falling down the slopes of the basin and onto its floor. Credit: BOEM

    Picture 2. Digital elevation model (DEM) reconstruction of Santorini comparing (a) the present-day topography and (b) the proposed topography prior to the Minoan eruption. The latter shows the reduced size of a Pre-Kameni island, a smaller and shallower caldera harbour restricted to the north, a possibly smaller caldera outlet (dotted blue line) in the north, and a continuous southern caldera rim connecting Thera and Therasia through Aspronisi.

    My comment: Gen. 7:11 "In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened."