Histone Code - A Biological Database

Readers, writers and erasers - Epigenetic markers of histones - a sophisticated biological database

The cell has a biological database that has sometimes been compared to the barcode system. These are epigenetic markers of histones, known to many different types. The most common are methylation, acetylation and ubiquitination. Histones are DNA packaging proteins around which DNA is interwoven. The cell uses the structure of chromatin to regulate and control the genes. The more open chromatin is, the more actively the gene is read in transcription. And vice versa, what is the more concealed in the structure of the histones, the more the cell holds the gene suppressed so it can not end up in transcription. The structure of the chromatin acts as an analogue regulator. Thus, epigenetic regulation works much more dynamically than an ON / OFF switch. Histone epigenetic markers have a very large regulatory effect, e.g. for alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. This mechanism makes it possible to use genetic material in a multi purpose way. For example, from human DNA 19,600 protein encoding genes, the cells can produce up to more than a million different proteins for different purposes of our body.

Histone epigenetic markers serve as a biological address database, keeping information on how the cell is to read genes. Histone markers are inherited by assistance of non coding RNA molecules. For example, lncRNA molecules have a great importance in this task. All the individual's characteristics are stored in the epigenetic markers of histones. They have a decisive influence on cell identity, that is, its differentiation process, so imbalances and disturbances in the histone markers database might cause serious diseases such as cancer.

Histone epigenetic markers have writers, readers, and erasers. These enzymes and proteins, in turn, are under the control of non coding RNA molecules. They are often transmitted by extracellular vesicles, which function, as carriers and mediators of miRNA molecules in cellular communication. This mechanism allows the cell to learn about the surrounding world, climate, nutrition, stress, etc. The erasers make it possible for the organism to adapt to the surrounding nature dynamically and also in reverse. Any change in organisms is based on epigenetic control of existing biological information or loss of information, whereby the cell activates alternative configurations to maintain the most important mechanisms for survival. Random mutations or natural selection have nothing to do with these designed mechanisms.

If the epigenetic regulatory layers experience disruption or imbalances, the DNA is exposed to harmful sequence errors, i.e. mutations. These include, for example, in the human genome already at the population level, tens of millions and have led to 208368 genetic mutations in human DNA. The annual growth was about 20,000. There is no mechanism for evolution because the genes of DNA do not control anything. The cell reads, regulates and uses them according to the adaptation needs. In adaptation, information typically disappears because variable methylation profiles trigger sequence errors and thus generate a defective gene material that the cell can not use. The biological address database, the histone code, is proof of design and creation. An unguided, random-based lottery system is not able to build such a high-tech information system. That is why every believer in evolution is deceiving himself. Don't get lost.